Extensive protection against amicron variants requires covid booster, research shows

A COVID-19 booster dose will provide strong and extensive antibody protection against the Omicron sublinase variant of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, two new studies suggest using serum from human blood samples.

Researchers at Ohio State University in the United States have tested antibody levels against BA.2 and BA.3 omicron variants and a recombinant variant caused by the exchange of genetic material between deltacron, delta and omicron.

Studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and the Journal of Cell Host and Microbe show that a third dose of mRNA vaccine is needed to produce a sufficiently high concentration of antibodies to neutralize BA.2 and deltacron. Other Omicron variants, including the original BA.1, and BA.1.1.

The antibodies produced by a series of just two doses of the mRNA vaccine were sufficient to neutralize BA.3 – a sign that this variant could not create a new wave of Omicron infection, the researchers said.

“Three doses are good for everything,” said Shan-Lu Liu, a professor of virology at Ohio State University and senior author of both studies.

“People are asking about recombinant DeltaCron and BA.3, and now we have an answer. And that’s good news,” Liu said. They do not doubt that BA.3 will prevail because it is even sensitive to neutralization.

In a study published in NEJM, researchers tested the antibody levels in the serums of 10 healthcare professionals at Wexner Medical Center in Ohio State.

After a dose of two vaccines, on average, antibody levels were 3.3-fold and 44.7-fold lower against BA.3 and deltacron, respectively, which neutralized the parent SARS-CoV-2 virus, they said.

After the booster, the antibody levels were much higher than all the variants tested, and the same antibody levels decreased 2.9-fold and 13.3-fold – showing a dramatic improvement in protection, especially against deltacron, according to the researchers.

The researchers then tested the blood samples of 18 patients in the ICU during the epidemic delta wave and found comparable levels of antibodies against the parent virus and BA.3, but 137.8-times lower concentrations against the deltacron than the parent virus.

Blood samples from 31 hospitalized non-ICU patients during omikron increase showed better antibody protection against deltacron, they said.

“The Deltacron Spike protein is structured like any other Omicron variant, so people infected with Omicron seem to have very good protection against Deltacron. The first author.

“However, compared to Booster, Omicron transmission provides much less protection against Deltacron,” Evans said.
The cell host and microbe study examined the serum antibody levels of 48 healthcare professionals after their second dose of mRNA vaccine and 19 from their third dose of mRNA vaccine, as well as in the serum of 31 COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital during Omicron growth.

“For two vaccine doses, the neutral antibody concentration of healthcare workers against the Omicron variant was very weak, but after booster it became equal,” Evans said.

“Levels of neutral antibodies against Omicron were still lower than those of the parent virus, but different and much more comparable. So the booster provides much stronger protection and much broader protection,” he said.
Patients with delta or omicron infections were similarly protected against their respective infectious forms and improved the dose protection of a vaccine against the infection, the researchers said.

Of all the healthcare professionals studied and infected patients, those who received the three vaccine doses had overall broader and stronger antibody protection, they added.

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