Risk of diabetes: Learn about pre-diabetes and how to reverse it

How big is the pre-diabetic epidemic in Indian population?
The prevalence of prediabetes in India is often underestimated. Based on research studies conducted in India, the prevalence of prediabetes in India is estimated to be around 15% of the population tested. Given that one in six Indian adults has pre-diabetes, it is not surprising that it is considered an epidemic.

Is the profile of a certain age group or population at risk?
Here are the risk factors for prediabetes:
– Being overweight
– Age 45 years or older
– Parents, brothers or sisters have type 2 diabetes
– Inadequate physical activity (less than three times a week)
– History of gestational diabetes
(Gestational diabetes)
– History of polycystic ovary syndrome.
Advise about screening and frequency for pre-diabetes testing.
The following groups of people need to be screened
– Age = 45 years without other risk factors
– Family history of type 2 diabetes
– Overweight or obese
– sedentary lifestyle
– Low good cholesterol or high triglyceride
– Polycystic ovary syndrome
– Fatty liver disease
– History of gestational diabetes or birth of a child weighing 4 kg.

Screening can be done by fasting glucose and HbA1c (8 week average blood sugar level) or oral glucose tolerance test. In the case of normal results, it is recommended to repeat the test at least every 3 years. In some individuals with more than two risk factors, more frequent screening may be considered.

Is prediabetes retrograde?
Yes, absolutely. Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus is a lifestyle-related disease and therefore, changes in diet, adequate physical activity and moderate weight loss can prevent and prevent prediabetes. Regular physical activity of 150 minutes walking is considered sufficient. About 6 to 10% can achieve a moderate weight loss in contrast to prediabetes.

In what cases can it lead to diabetes?
Prediabetes will progress to the onset of type 2 diabetes in about 25% of subjects within 3-5 years and about 70% of people with prediabetes will develop open diabetes in their lifetime. If the above risk factors are not addressed (inadequate physical activity, progressive weight gain), then such individuals may develop overactive diabetes.

Is lifestyle change enough to reverse diabetes early?
Studies have shown that people with early type 2 diabetes can counteract this by simply changing their diet and lifestyle. One study that targeted people with 10,000 steps a day and at least 2 1/2 hours of moderate exercise per week – cutting 500-750 calories a day as well as found that many patients with early type 2 diabetes could bring their blood glucose back to normal range without medication. However, it may not be achievable in every person with type 2 diabetes.

Five points to avoid diabetes:
(i) Lose excess weight: Achieve ideal body weight; In overweight or obese people, lose at least 6 to 10% of current body weight
(ii) Be more physically active: moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise (walking, cycling, swimming) for thirty minutes or more; Resistance exercises two to three times a week (weightlifting, yoga)
(iii) Follow healthy eating habits: Avoid high carbohydrate foods, avoid refined sugars, increase fiber intake, and eat fresh fruits and vegetables regularly.
(iv) Quit smoking: It has been shown to be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
(v) Early screening of at-risk populations and taking the necessary preventive measures if any parameters suggest progression to diabetes (e.g., fasting glucose levels, low cholesterol levels, high triglycerides).

Dr. NK Narayanan
Senior Consultant, Endocrinologist,
Apollo Hospital, Chennai
BLURB: Dietary changes, physical activity and weight loss
Can prevent prediabetes and
Type 2 diabetes mellitus

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